With grateful thanks to Steve Higgins for sending me preview issue.
Updated 25 October 2002. Updates in blue.
Coming in May, 2003, from MonkeyBrain
Press: Heroes and Monsters, the Unofficial Companion to League of
A press release with more details is forthcoming.
(The image above is © copyright 2002 Alan Moore & Kevin O'Neill. The text here, except where otherwise credited, is © copyright 2002 Jess Nevins, and may not be duplicated, in part or in whole, without my permission.)
(Additions and corrections are of course appreciated.)
Cover. This scene is set in the British Museum, the headquarters for the League; we got a glimpse of this in issue #2 of the first series.
Moving widdershins, beginning with Mina:
The book Mina is holding has the words "Apergy" and "1880" on them. This is a reference to Percy Greg's Across the Zodiac (1880), in which apergy, a "repellant force" that works very much like anti-gravity, is discovered and used to transport the protagonist to Mars. Apergy later appeared in John Jacob Astor's A Journey in Other Worlds (1894) and in Jack London's "A Thousand Deaths" (1899). For more information on apergy and Across the Zodiac see the Apergy entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site.
The map of Mars behind Mina is dated 1880. Presumably it was compiled by the hero of Across the Zodiac. Jason Adams notes that the map "resembles actual maps made by the astronomer Percival Lowell in the late 19th and early 20th centuries."
The top picture on the left bears the caption "timore Gunclub 1865." This is a reference to the Baltimore Gun Club, of Jules Verne's De la Terre a la Lune (From the Earth to the Moon, 1865) and its sequel, Round the Moon (1870); the Gun Club use a giant artillery piece to fire a manned projectile to the moon.
The bottom picture on the left bears the caption "Augustus Bedloe." This is a reference to the protagonist of Edgar Allan Poe's "A Tale of the Ragged Mountains" (1844). In that story Bedloe walked into the Ragged Mountains outside of Charlottesville, encountered a strange city, and had an out-of-body experience.
The submarine-like model below the portrait of Augustus Bedloe bears the placard with the words "Astronef," "proposed by," "ofessor Hart," and "eaton York." This is a reference to George Griffith's "A Visit to the Moon" (1900). In that story Rollo Lenox Smeaton Aubrey (the Earl of Redgrave) and Lilla Rennick take the Astronef, a spaceship designed by Lilla's father, Professor Hartley Rennick, into space and visit Mars. For more information, see the Rollo Lenox Smeaton Aubrey entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site.
I am unaware of a specific provenance for the statue of the Egyptian cat on the pedestal. Mike Chary notes that the statue is either Bast, the Egyptian goddess of luck, or a Victorian character modeled on her. Gabriel McCann insists that the cat statue might be a reference to the black cat statue in the 1945 film version of The Picture of Dorian Gray. Jeff Patterson and Jason Adams note that there's a replica statue for sale in the British Museum that's similar to the one seen here. Lang Thompson says
The cat is a statute of Bast (Bastet); the rings in the nose and ears are a giveaway. I can't find any good reason for her inclusion except that she might have been a protector of women (such as Mina) and her priestesses wore red (again like Mina). However Bastet has become a favorite of cat-lovers and New Age types so there's a lot of incorrect and obscuring information around.Many people (including Kieran Cowan, Shaun Noel, Jeff Patterson, Jeff Sweeney, Jason Adams, and Anthony Padilla) noted that the initials "K.O." on the statue are not some arcane or esoteric reference to Victorian literature, as I thought they were, but rather Kevin O'Neill's initials. Well. Color me foolish.
The black cat on the pedestal has a placard reading, "C. Cave, Naturalist and Dealer." This is a reference to H.G. Wells' "The Crystal Egg" (1897) in which Mr. Cave, a dealer in antiquities, sees Mars through a crystal egg.
The upside down scabbard has the word "Phra" inscribed on it. This is a reference to Edwin L. Arnold's The Wonderful Adventures of Phra the Phoenician (1891). Phra is a Phoenician trader from 1st century B.C.E. who is reincarnated through the ages. For more information, see the Phra the Phoenician entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site.
The rabbit inside the glass jar, wearing a jacket and holding a watch, is the White Rabbit from Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865), which surely needs no explanation.
The skull with the Roman centurion helmet has a tag reading "Lepidu". This is a reference to Edwin L. Arnold's Lepidus the Centurion (1901), a novel in which an Englishman in the modern day finds the living body of a Roman centurion, Lepidus, trapped in a tomb which has recently been uncovered by an uprooted tree.
What looks like a wooden mallet is actually the head of Pinocchio, from Carlo Lorenzini's The Adventures of Pinocchio (1881). As mslbdll says, "pinocchio appears to be experiencing some karma. Remember, in the original book version of the story (not the disney one) pinocchio kills his cricket conscience with a mallet. This end result simply appears to be justice at work." Eric Reehl has persuaded me that I was looking at Pinocchio wrong, and that Pinocchio must have lied very badly just before he died, because his nose is quite long. His nose points towards the lower lefthand corner of the cover. The two oval spots on his head are his eyes, his mouth is just visible below his nose, and on the side of his head is his head. His body is not visible; obviously he was decapitated.
Inside the glass case are three stuffed animals:
|The first, a toad, may be Mr. Toad, from Kenneth Grahame's charming The Wind in the Willows (1908), a novel about the adventures of various anthropomorphic talking animals in a pastoral England. PJ Ayres notes that the character I've identified as "Mr. Toad" is probably the Frog Footman from the Tenniel illustrations to Through the Looking Glass.|
|The second, a rat, is (I'm quite certain) Mr. Rat from The Wind in the Willows. Stu Shiffman would prefer that it be one of the mice from Eve Titus' "Basil of Baker Street" series.|
|The third animal is not, as I originally thought, Mr. Badger from Wind in the Willows, but--as a number of folks noted, Geoffrey Tolle, Adventurer, and Jason Adams among them--a bird or penguin in a soldier's or marching band uniform. Anthony Padilla suggests that it's either a penguin from Richard & Florence Atwater's Mr. Popper's Penguins or one of the dancing penguins from Mary Poppins. Mark Elstob wonders if it's a character from The Nutcracker. Mark wonders if it might be from Anatole France's Penguin Island.|
The hookah/water pipe, is, I think, the water pipe of the caterpillar, from Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. So is the playing card figure and the Cheshire Cat, both in glass jars of their own. Geoffrey Tolle adds,
Note that the hookah appears to be hooked up to the pump/valve at the top of the 2 of Spades' bell jar. I suspect that the implication is that hallucinogenic substances are being extracted from the body of the cardman which might also explain its advanced state of decay as opposed to the Cheshire Cat or the White Rabbit.Hanging to the left of Little Red Riding Hood's hood is Sherlock Holmes' dressing gown. Jason Adams, among others, sees a resemblance between the gown and Griffin's robe, which Mina discovers on Page 15.
Jeff Patterson notes "there's a bust of Pallas Athena visible at the top right corner of the title banner. It's in shadow, but we can assume it is the "pallid" bust from The Raven." That is, of course, Edgar Allan Poe's poem "The Raven."
The bat-winged figure in the case to the left of the Cheshire Cat is the suit of Spring-Heeled Jack. Spring-Heeled Jack was a persistent urban myth in 19th century Britain as well as being the villain and later hero of various penny dreadfuls, most notably Charlton Lea's Spring-Heeled Jack, the Terror of London (1890). In his heroic phase he was a nobleman who wore a chamois cloth suit with steel rods concealed in the boots so that the wearer could make the prodigious leaps which Jack was known for. For more information, see the Spring-Heeled Jack entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site. Steve Smith and Shawn Garre disagree, seeing the face of the suit as being too cat-like for Spring-Heeled Jack.
The burning lamp is Aladdin's Lamp.
Jason Adams corrects my mistaken identification of the picture with the label "1889" and notes that the larger figure is holding a helmet from a medieval suit of armor, and combined with the date is probably a reference to Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, which was published in 1889.
The picture below that, with what looks like a Roman centurion holding a badminton racket, is (I think) a picture of the main characters from Lepidus the Centurion.
The black globe with the placard "The Steel Globe" is a reference to Robert Cromie's A Plunge into Space (1890), about a scientist who builds a fifty-foot sphere of black metal and travels to Mars with a group of friends.
Page 1. Panel 1. This is the first instance of a slight discrepancy between the chronologies of League and the War of the Worlds. In War of the Worlds the shelling of the first Martian craft begins, in Chapter Nine, Saturday night, "about six in the evening."
I thought it too obvious to mention, but a few people, Allyn Polk among them, prompt me to note that the "Jonathan" Mina refers to here is Jonathan Harker, Mina's ex-husband.
The ever-interesting Martin Linck contributes the following:
In the extreme left bottom corner of the panel we see what appears to be a Hussar; a type of very pretty light cavalry introduced during the Napoleonic Wars and totally obsolete by the time of the Boer War. There were, indeed, still British units of Hussars in 1898. To see them deployed here is a dpressing comment, perhaps, on British military insight during this period.
Center: This is a british artillery team, aiming what appears to be an Armstrong 12-Pounder. Again, the men and equipment are totally compatible with the Boer War period. The 12-pounder was a breech-loading field artillery piece; the Boers captured dozens of them during the war.
Right of Center: Major Blimp, making a big target of himself. Men like him had an extremely short life expectancy in South Africa, Botha's commandoes opened fire at officers and worked their way down through the ranks until their British opponents were a demoralized, leaderless rabble. The aliens seem to take a more egalitarian approach; everybody runs an equal risk of incineration.
Panel 3. In War of the Worlds the second Martian craft lands at the Byfleet Golf Links in Chapter Nine. Martin Linck says, "We see here the muzzle of a Maxim gun; the first real machine gun and the main reason WWI turned into an obscenely bloody stalemate."
Page 2. "And the Dawn Comes Up Like Thunder" is a passage from Rudyard Kipling's "Mandalay," from his Barrack-Room Ballads (1892). The line is from the poem's refrain; the first stanza is this:
By the old Moulmein Pagoda lookin' eastward to the sea,Martin Linck adds,
There's a Burma girl a-settin' and I know she thinks of me.
For the wind is in the palm-trees, and the temple bells they say,
"Come you back, you British soldier, come you back to Mandalay."
Come you back to Mandalay,
Where the old Flotilla lay.
Can't you 'ear their paddles chunkin' from Rangoon to Mandalay?
On the road to Mandalay,
Where the flyin' fishes play,
And the dawn comes up like thunder out of China 'crost the bay.
The gentlemen on horseback, with the very silly hats, are more Hussars. The one with the telescope probably has the Carbine-version of the Lee-Metford hanging from his saddle. He appears to be wearing the home-service uniform. The gunner is holding a shell for the twelve-pounder. It could be worse; as recently as the Crimean War, the British were still using muzzle-loading black-powder cannon.Martin then concludes,
So, I'm afraid the conclusion is that, despite all the other technical innovations depicted by the authors in the league universe, the military's equipment and tactics are consistent with those of the British Army in our universe in 1898. This is not entirely surprising. The Army was, at the time, one of the most conservative bodies on earth; they could be expected to resist most innovations. It could also be noted that the engagement between the Aliens and Major Blimp's men is no bloodier or more stupid than most of the battles of WWI, where high-explosive rounds and machine guns made mincemeat of mere human beings.Page 3. Panel 3. Brendan McGuire points out that in Chapter 32 of Bleak House the character Krook dies of spontaneous combustion, a possible foreshadowing of the scene here.
Page 4. Panel 4. The identity of the coachman is revealed on Page 7, Panel 5.
Page 5. Panel 2. In WotW the narrator's home is in Maybury. The scene in this panel is of the narrator and his wife evacuating their home; the narrator's wife is the woman in the hat on the righthand side of the panel. I think.
Panels 4. Ian Crichton solves the problem of the identity of the red-coated gentlemen:
He, and the young lady dressed in pink to whom he is about to present a bouquet of flowers, are more than slightly reminiscent of the illustrations on boxes and tins of the 'Quality Street' brand of assorted sweets and toffees, which have been available for around one hundred years from Rountrees Limited. Although they are usually depicted in eighteenth century costume, I think messers Moore and O'Neill have brought them up to date.Page 6. Panel 1. I do not know what the giant animal's skeleton is a reference to; perhaps the skeleton of some beast Professor Challenger brought back from Maple White Land? Keith Martin says of the skeleton:
The animal skeleton at the top of the panel has fins and is probably a large fish or small whale. From its proximity to the bust of Munchausen, I assume this is the creature that swallowed the Baron in one of his more famous tales (as used in the opening sequence of Terry Gilliam's film).Jason Adams (several others echoed this, among them Edward Rogers) says
I think I've identified the giant skeletal fish hanging from the ceiling on pg. 6. It's a coelacanth, a primitve lobed-fin fish known only from fossils until living specimens were first discovered in the 1930s. Here's a link: http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2002/february/coela2.htm and another: http://www.calacademy.org/science_now/images/coelac1.jpg Considering its Mesozoic origins, it is conceivable that this specimen could have come from Maple White Land, or perhaps, the Liddenbrock Sea, but personally I'd like to think that Nemo caught it off the Comoros islands or the coast of Madagascar. Beating, by several decades, the rest of the world to a yet another scientific discovery!Marcus Good says
The skeletal animal on page 6, panel 1 of LoEG 2.3 isn't from Lost World, as the only two creatures brought back were a pterosaur in the book, and an Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus) in the 1925 film. All I *can* tell you for sure about Mr Bony there is that he's a fish of some sort. Definitely not a shark, mind you, since it's a skeleton, and has ray fins.Steve Higgins cleared up the puzzle of the giant humanoid skeleton by pointing out the Edward Lear limerick, "An Old Man of Coblenz," which runs
There was an Old Man of CoblenzThe An Old Man of Coblenz page has a Lear image which has a marked similarity to the skeleton here. Timothy Rutt interestingly notes, "my first impression of the skeleton in the museum was that it looked like how I imagine a skeleton of a Green Apple Bonker (from the film "Yellow Submarine") would look." Lang Thompson notes that the limerick was published in 1846, hence the date shown here.
The length of whose legs was immense
He went with one prance
From Turkey to France
That surprising Old Man of Coblenz.
José da Silvestra is the Portuguese (not the Spaniard--thanks to Cefo for pointing out my mistake) who in 1590 discovers the mines of King Solomon in H. Rider Haggard's King Solomon's Mines (1885), the novel which introduced Allan Quatermain.
Win Eckert and Steve Higgins identified the source of the the straight razor with the plaque "Kettlewell, Yorkshire, Mr. W. C. Cording." It is a reference to C.J. Cutcliffe Hyne's "The Lizard" (1898).
The bust below the head of the skeleton of the beat is that of Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Baron von Münchhausen (1720-1797). Baron Münchhausen is best known for his extraordinarily tall tales. A collection of his tales first appeared in 1781-3, under the title Vademecum fur Lustige Leute (Manual for Merry People), but Münchhausen was made into the epitome of the European tall tale teller with the 1785 Baron Munchhausen's Narrative of His Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Russia.
The painting on the right is the final version of portrait of Dorian Gray, from Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891), in which the painting of Dorian Gray reflected Gray's sins. A number of people, tphile and Heather Kamp among them, noted that I missed the joke: the "Danger" sign and the pots on the scaffolding indicate that they're cleaning and/or restoring it. Heather Kamp notes that the picture seen here is "actually the one shown in the 1945 film, who appearance is the sole use of technicolor in the film."
To the right of the giant skeleton can be seen part of a statue. I believe this is the statue of the Reverend Dr. Syn, seen from the back, in the crossed-guns pose shown in his picture in Panel 2 of Page 23 of issue #2 of the first series of the League. The Reverend Dr. Syn is from Russell Thorndike's Doctor Syn (1915) and its six prequels, and was shown in League v1 #2 to have been a member of the 18th century League.
Panel 2. The corpulent gentleman the League is speaking with is Mycroft Holmes, Sherlock Holmes' older and smarter brother and, following the events of the first League series, the new M.
Panel 3. The Duc de Nevers says, "Mycroft Holmes warns the League against mentioning the word `invasion' as the 'panic alone could kill hundreds.' I think this is a reference to the famous Orson Welles radio adaptation of WotW, broadcast in 1938."
Page 7. Panel 4. Hanging from Mycroft Holmes' watch chain are various Masonic symbols, including the eye in the pyramid and the compass and square. See the "Freemasonry" Site for some idea of their meaning.
Panel 5. "Mr. William Samson Senior" is not a pre-existing character, but is rather an example of what Moore calls "back-engineering." Starting in 1922 the character "the Wolf of Kabul" appeared in the British comics Wizard and Hotspur. The Wolf of Kabul, whose real name was Bill Sampson (often shown as "Samson"), was an agent for the British Intelligence Corps operating on the Northwest frontier of India. William Samson, Sr. is the father of the Wolf of Kabul. For more information on the Wolf of Kabul, see the Wolf of Kabul entry on my Pulp Heroes site. Moore said that the timing was right for the Wolf's father to have fought against the forces of the Mad Mahdi. The "Mad Mahdi" was Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad (1844-1885), the Muslim religious leader of a movement against the Egyptians ruling the Mahdi's native Sudan. This goal brought the Mahdi into conflict with British forces, which led to the Battle of El Obeid, on 5 November 1883, in which the Mahdi's forces completely wiped out an Egyptian force led by General William Hicks. This defeat was shocking to the British public, as was the defeat six weeks later of another Egyptian force led by the British rogue Valentine Baker, but neither horrified Britain so badly as the taking of Khartoum on 26 January 1885, in which General "Chinese" Gordon and the entire British garrison of Khartoum were massacred. (Naturally, the British retaliated, sending Major General Sir Horatio Kitchener and 26,000 men to hunt down the Mahdi's successor and wipe the Mahdist dervishes out at the Battle of Omdurman.)
For more information, see the El Mahdi entry in the Encyclopedia of the Orient and Simon Rees' "Mad Mahdi" article.
Page 8. Panel 3. The bust on the right is of Sir Percy Blakeney, aka the Scarlet Pimpernel, from Baroness Emmuska Orczy's The Scarlet Pimpernel (1905) and its ten sequels. The Scarlet Pimpernel was shown in League v1 #2 to have been a member of the 18th century League.
Page 9. Panel 3. Samson Sr., as a British veteran, undoubtedly fought the Pathans and Kurds in the British campaigns in the North-West Frontier of India from 1855-1863.
Page 10. Panel 1. "Anti-Stiff" was an actual product sold in the 19th century; athletes used it to strengthen the body. An image of an Anti-Stiff can be found at the Ironopolis Football Club site.
Chips was an actual comic; an Alfred Harmsworth publication, the Illustrated Chips was published from 1890 to 1952.
Lang Thompson wonders if the child in the upper left, with the hat, white shirt and red scarf might be Little Lord Fauntleroy.
Panel 2. Damian Gordon suggests that "Nemo's reference to the bravery of the British under pressure (and Allan's response) could be a reference to the 'spirit of the blitz'."
Pages 12-13. Panel 1. The Martian Tripod is described in Chapter Ten of War of the Worlds in this way:
And this Thing I saw! How can I describe it? A monstrous tripod, higher than many houses, striding over the young pine trees, and smashing them aside in its career; a walking engine of glittering metal, striding now across the heather; articulate ropes of steel dangling from it, and the clattering tumult of its passage mingling with the riot of the thunder. A flash, and it came out vividly, heeling over one way with two feet in the air, to vanish and reappear almost instantly as it seemed, with the next flash, a hundred yards nearer. Can you imagine a milking stool tilted and bowled violently along the ground? That was the impression those instant flashes gave. But instead of a milking stool imagine it a great body of machinery on a tripod stand.Jamie Ward says
The first appearance of a Martian fighting machine on Earth in #3 Vol 2, as well as being a fantastic 2-page splash, seems (to my eye at least) contain several nods to various incarnations of War of the Worlds.Page 14. Panel 1. The bust is, I think, of Sherlock Holmes.
Of course, the overall design is still as it was in Wells' novel, the tripod locomotion, the tentacles (right down to gripping the tree) however the cowl of the machine seems to have a great resemblance to the design work of Patrick Tatopoulos, who was responsible for the look of the invaders and their machinery in 'Independence Day'. That said the cowl also has some similarity to the fighting machines of the George Powell 'War of the Worlds', the green glow etc. If one were to remove the legs of the tripod and the tentacles, one would have a contemporary re-design of this vehicle, or perhaps the attack ships of 'ID4'?
The Heat-Ray also looks very similar to the device used by the Martians in Powell's film to 'remotely view' the farm house. I have to say that I think it looks little like a camera, as Wells describes it, however it has lost none of its menace!
The giant beetle in the vacuum tube is the Beetle, from Richard Marsh's The Beetle (1897). In that novel a shapechanging Egyptian princess, who can take the form of a giant, malign beetle, a beautiful androgyne, and an old woman or man, pursues a vendetta against a British M.P. For more information on The Beetle, see the Beetle entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site.
The top picture on the right could be of a number of characters named "Thomas" from Victorian literature. Anthony Padilla suggests that it's a picture of a grown up Tom Sawyer, from Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer, Detective (1896). Beppe Sabatini agrees and sees his presence here as a "grudging concession to the motion picture in production," in which Tom Sawyer is a member of the League.
The bottom picture is of Dr. Nikola, from Guy Boothby's five Dr. Nikola novels, the first of which was A Bid For Fortune (1895). Dr. Nikola is one of the greatest of the fictional archvillains. For more information on him, see the Dr. Nikola entry my Fantastic Victoriana site.
Panel 2. The books are a reference to Arnould Galopin's Le Docteur Oméga - Aventures Fantastiques de Trois Français dans la Planète Mars (Dr. Omega - Fantastic Adventures Of Three Frenchmen On Planet Mars, 1905). Le Docteur Oméga was about Doctor Omega, an inventor-adventurer, who goes to Mars and fights various Martians, some of whom are quite like the one seen here. I have slightly more information on Dr. Omega on the French Heroes section of my Pulp Heroes site, and Jean-Marc Lofficier has still more information in his superb French Science Fiction, Fantasy, Horror and Pulp Fiction and on his Doctor Omega page.
Panel 7. Kieran Cowan says, of the mask Mina's looking at here, "the hat beneath it is that of the first citizen of the Republic. It's Robespierre's Death Mask, that's my BET anyway. It's the right hat. And it is most CERTAINLY a death mask, so, two and two. That would seem like something for Percy to bring back for the collection." Jackie Williams (and Rob Harris and Carolyn Dougherty, among others, agrees with him/her) says
I believe the mask and hat on page 14 panel 7 belong to Napoleon Bonaparte. The hat is similar to one he is typically shown wearing, and I have links to several articles below that mention a death mask was made upon his death. As you can see from these articles several people have been attributed with making the mask. Although many bronze copies of the mask were made, the color of the one in this panel leads me to believe it is the original made of plaster.Zoltán Déry interestingly notes that "the hat in the case on page 14, panel 7 appears to be a "Napoleon" hat with a "6" on the rosette. Could this be a play on the Sherlock Holmes story 'The Adventure of the Six Napoleons?'"
The "Eyes Only - Docteur Omega" sheet, with "J.M. Lofficier" on the bottom, is another reference to Le Docteur Oméga. "J.M. Lofficier" is a reference to Jean-Marc Lofficier, one of the world's leading experts on French science fiction, fantasy, and pulp fiction and the author of an outstanding work on the subject, French Science Fiction, Fantasy, Horror and Pulp Fiction. Jean-Marc has a very good website, Cool French Comics, with a great deal of very interesting material.
Un Habitant de la Planète Mars is a reference (I think) to the 1865 novel of the same name by the Frenchman François-Henri Peudefer de Parville. In that novel the calcified body of an ancient Martian is discovered in America.
Page 15. Panels 1-3. Keith Martin (and Tim Kreider and David Thiel) says
You don't mention the map on the wall here ("Sea of Drea(ms)" etc.). It's from Rudyard Kipling's story "The Brushwood Boy" which appeared in Century Magazine in December 1895 and chronicles the dream adventures of a boy named Georgie. The map (like many other fictional maps) is reproduced in An Atlas of Fantasy by J.B.Post (1973/1979). According to the Atlas, "Georgie often knows he is dreaming, and will wade through rivers or burn down cities for his own amusement."Panel 5. The skeleton of the centaur is a reference to the centaurs of the Marvellous Islands; see Page 26 below.
Page 19. Panel 2. The giant skull, previously seen in League v1 #2 Page 20 Panel 4, is the skull of one of the giant Brobdingnags, from Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726).
Panel 4. Nemo's statement, "Growing up in Mombai, in Calcutta, one learns differently" presents us with something of a difficulty. Moore has accepted Jules Verne's second origin for Nemo, the one appearing in The Mysterious Island and detailed in the annotations to League v1 #1: Nemo is "Prince Dakkar, the son of a rajah of the then independent territory of Bundelkund and a nephew of the Indian hero, Tippu-Sahib." Bundelkand (misspelled "Bundelkund" by Verne) is in the north central section of India, quite some way from either Mombai or from Calcutta. One could posit that Nemo's father travelled and kept his son with him as he did so--but that's not exactly a realistic assumption to make of a pre-Mutiny Rajah.
Page 20. Panel 1. I do not know who the picture of the shotgun-wielding man might be of. John Robie thinks that it looks like Colonel Moran from the Reichenbach Falls flashback scene in League v1 #5. Also see the first note to Page 29, below.
Page 22. Panel 1. The man with the tattoo on his back, working on the side of the Nautilus, is Broad-Arrow Jack, previously seen in League v1 #4, Page 1, panel 1. Jack is the hero of an eponymous 1866 penny dreadful written by E. Harcourt Burrage. For more information on Jack, see the Broad-Arrow Jack entry on my my Fantastic Victoriana site.
Panel 4. The scientist on the South Downs will be seen in issue #5 of League v2; for more information on him, see Page 26 below.
Page 23. Panel 1. The meaning of "H-142" will be revealed in issue #5 of League v2.
Panel 3. Steve Smith, among others, including Ian Crichton, Zoltán Déry, Neal Peters, and Jean Rogers, points out that the "Nutwood, Just So Good" ad above Mina's head is a reference to Nutwood, where beloved British children's character Rupert the Bear lives. Mark Elstob usefully contributes more on Rupert:
Nutwood was the idyllic village home of Rupert the Bear in the extremely long-running newspaper strip of the same name. From Nutwood, where he lived with his parents, Rupert travelled to a bewildering variety of fantastic locations in the pursuit of his adventures. He first appeared in the pages of the Daily Express newspaper, in 1920, written and drawn by his creator, Mary Tourtel. His greater fame though, stems from the body of work generated by her successor, Alfred Bestall, who wrote and drew the strips from 1935 to 1965, (demonstrating such imagination and artistic skill that it puts him in absolutely the same league as Carl Barks). In 1936, Bestall produced a hardcover Rupert Annual in full colour, which was successful enough to warrant a new book every Christmas thereafter. Rupert is still being published today, which must make him a contender for the longest-running newspaper strip.Page 24. Duc de Nevers (not the Duc de Nevers, but a descendant, surely) notes:
The last page of the main story also has a dig at the current U.K government. For those of you (ignorant colonials mostly) who don't keep up with British politics, there is currently an ongoing furore about U.K. immigration policy. David Blunkett (the current Home Secretary) made a few headlines in the last few months by suggesting that all immigrants should be made to take a citizenship test and should speak in English rather than their native tongue, even in their own homes. Hence, the mention of "...proof of loyal citizenship..." and the Home Secretary.Peter Slack adds that there's more on this speech here: http://www.politeia.net/seminar/Papers/CITZ-STANDISH.htm.
"The New Traveller's Alamanac: Chapter Three"
Page 25. “...beneath the waters of Drake
Drake's Passage is a real place.
"The science-pirate Captain Nemo, who kept a base at nearby Lincoln
Island in the South Pacific..."
Lincoln Island appears in Jules Verne's L'Ile Mystérieuse (The Mysterious Island, 1874). L'Ile Mystérieuse was the sequel to 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, and the novel in which Verne retconned Captain Nemo's origin. In the novel Lincoln Island was Nemo's volcano base.
"...first mate Ishmael..."
Ishmael, seen in League v1 #4, is the narrator of Herman Melville's Moby Dick (1851).
"...what we have come to call the ghost submersible, an vehicle much
like The Nautilus, which I had thought to be unique. Broad Arrow Jack has
recently returned from Tierra del Fuego, where he'd been put ashore to
learn whatever might be known of this elusive craft, and served us up an
interesting account of his discoveries; The locals tell tales of an English
naval sergeant, one James Winston Pepper, lost at sea in 1870, suposedly
dragged down by undertows through emerald waters and eventually washed
up upon the shores of a subsurface paradise where harmony reigned everywhere.
The realm, named Pepper's Land after the sergeant, is reputedly the source
of the garishly-coloured phantom submarine we've sighted. It may also be
the home of a malignant species of blue dwarf or troll (perhaps related
to the Nordic kobolds) that turns up occasionally in Argentina..."
All of these are references to the very charming Beatles film Yellow Submarine (1968), written by Al Brodax, Roger McGough, Jack Mendelsohn, Lee Minoff, and Erich Segal. The "ghost submersible" is the Yellow Submarine. "James Winston Pepper" is the discoverer of Pepperland. The "emerald waters" is the Sea of Green. The "malignant species of blue dwarf" is the Blue Meanies. And their location, and the presence of the Blue Meanies in Argentina, is based on an exchange between the Chief Blue Meanie and his Second, Max: "It's no longer a blue world, Max. Where shall we go?" "Argentina?" Mike Norris adds that "James Winston Pepper" is derived from Paul McCartney's first name, "James," and John Lennon's middle name, "Winston."
"...until the occasion of his death in May, 1909..."
So we know that Nemo will survive the events of League v2 and we know when he will die. We don't know, yet, the circumstances of his death, however. Lang Thompson says, of Nemo's death date:
I'd hoped originally that Captain Nemo's death (May 1909) would have been the same year that McCay's Little Nemo started but unfortunately that was 1905. One source says the first Little Nemo film appeared in 1909 but this seems to be an error: 1911 is the date given by the IMDB and other sources. I think, though, that Moore is probably referring to the actor James Mason who was born May 15, 1909 and played Nemo in the 1954 film of 20000 Leagues. Can't tell if this is positive (linking a real person with Nemo) or negative (associating him with Nemo's death)."...a Miss Diver, whose connection to the Captain is unclear but who made entries in the logbook of the Nautilus commencing in the later months of 1910."
Jenny Diver is also in John Gay's Beggar's Opera but more to the point Gay's sequel was called "Polly" and features Macheath as a pirate/adventurer and Diver as his accomplice (or possibly Polly herself; I haven't read it and can't determine right now but will check the library this week). "Polly" was banned and not performed for a few years; there was a Broadway production in 1925 that ran 43 performances. Oddly enough there was a real Jenny Diver hanged for pickpocketing at Tyburn Tree (the Tree mentioned in a song in Beggar's Opera) but this was in 1740, a few years after Gay's death.Lang followed this up with:
I skimmed John Gay's Polly (sequel to Beggar's Opera) and am betting this might be more specifically what Moore had in mind. It's set in the West Indes and is full of pirates (well pyrates) and Indians which fits that particular section of the Almanac. Diver plays a large role in the second half of the play though I don't see anything particularly to link her to Nemo (but then that's part of the point of LOEG I guess).Jean Rogers says,
Jenny Diver: Lang Thomson is confusing Jenny Diver and Polly Peachum, both characters from John Gay's Beggars' Opera and also from Brecht's version, The Threepenny Opera. I haven't seen it for a while, but my recollection is that Polly Peachum is the female lead, who marries MacHeath... Whereas Jenny Diver is a minor character, but she has one big song, which is "Pirate Jenny's Song" (lyrics here) which is why she belongs at this point. Jenny has some menial job at the hotel, and in the song, she fantasises, as she scrubs the floor, that a pirate ship will come into town and carry her away from all this..."...a great cluster of small islands called the Riallaro Archipelago..."
Obsessives among us will note that she describes the pirate ship as "the Black Freighter" (as in Watchmen's "Tales of the Black Freighter"?), and that while the lyric is by Bertold Brecht, the music is, of course, by Kurt Weill (another familiar Moore reference).
"Aleofane, or 'Gem of Truth'...Fanattia...Figlefia...Spectralia and
neighboring Astralia...Haciocram...Kloriole, Broolyi, Swoonarie, Limanoria...Coxuria..."
All of these islands appear in Riallaro and Limanora.
"Southeast of Riallaro we find Manouham, famed for its fascinating
open-sided tombs, and nearby Letalispons..."
Manouham and Letalispons are from the Abbé Pierre François Guyot Desfontaines' Le Nouveau Gulliver, ou Voyage De Jean Gulliver, Fils Du Capitaine Gulliver (The New Gulliver, or the Voyage of Jean Gulliver, Son of Captain Gulliver, 1730). Le Nouveau Gulliver was an unauthorized sequel to Swift's Gulliver's Travels, written by Swift's French translator and detailing the adventures of Gulliver's son Jean.
"Both these islands are near Juan Fernandez, not far off the coast
of Chile, as is neighboring Frivola, the Frivolous Island."
The islands of Juan Fernandez and Frivola were created by the Abbé Gabriel François Coyer and appeared in his A Discovery of the Island Frivola: Or, the Frivolous Island, Translated from the French, Now privately handed about Paris, and said to be agreeable to the English Manuscripts concering that Island, and its Inhabitants (1750).
"...the delightful children-governed isle of Meipe..."
Meipe appeared in André Maurois' Meïpe ou La Délivrance (1929). Meïpe, founded by Michelle Maurois, the four-year-old daughter of André Maurois, is that wonderful land where teachers never teach and children do not need to be polite when speaking to grown-ups.
"...The Land of Parrots..."
The Land of Parrots appears in Pierre Charles Fabiot Aunillon, Abbé Du Guay de Launay's Azor, our Le prince enchanté (Azor, or the Enchanted Prince, 1750).
"...and the obscure immensity known as Mount Analogue."
Mount Analogue is from René Daumal's Le Mont Analogue (1952).
Paradise Island was created by "Ambrose Evans" and appeared in The Adventures, and Surprizing Deliverances, of James Dubourdieu, And His Wife (1719).
"...nearby Coral Island..."
Coral Island was created by R. M. Ballantyne and appeared in The Coral Island (1858).
"...the pink island known as Rose..."
The completely pink island of Rose appears in Mervyn Peake's Captain Slaughterboard Drops Anchor (1939).
"...one Captain Clegg (affiliated in some way to the adventurers
assembled by ship's surgeon Lemuel Gulliver)..."
Captain Clegg is the alternate identity of the Reverend Dr. Syn.
"The Pirates' Conference, Rose Island."
See Page 26 below.
Page 26. "...on The Black Tiger, owned
by Slaughterboard, who is a good man and an enemy to none of us, though
I like his yellow bunkmate not a bit."
The Black Tiger and Captain Slaughterboard are from Captain Slaughterboard Drops Anchor. Slaughterboard's "yellow bunkmate" is an elf, the "Yellow Creature," who Slaughterboard captured on his first trip to Rose Island. In the novel the two were simply master and servant, but Moore has revealed that they were bunkmates, just as many real pirates took male lovers.
"Blood was there, strutting and twirling his moustache..."
Blood is a reference to Captain Blood, from Rafael Sabatini's Captain Blood (1922).
"...and also John Silver, hopping around and cackling..."
"Long" John Silver appears in Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island (1883).
"Pugwash I cannot make up my mind about. He seems a rather soft and
inoffensive little chap, not at all cut out for life on the high seas."
Captain Pugwash, a rather amiable sort for a pirate, appeared in the first issue of the British comic Eagle, in 1950, and then on Captain Pugwash, a BBC cartoon, beginning in 1957.
"Hook, on the other hand, while very capable, is an enigma..."
Captain Hook is from J.M. Barrie's Peter Pan (1904).
"Blood got in a foppish slapping-match with Pysse-Gummes..."
Pysse-Gummes is a reference to "Captain Pissgums," the S. Clay Wilson pirate who character who appeared in such immortal adventures in Zap Comics as "Captain Pissgums and his Perverted Pirates Meet Ruby the Motorcycle Dyke."
"The Pirates' Conference, Rose Island."
In this Page 25 image I think the line-up is Captain Blood, Long John Silver, Captain Pissgums, Captain Pugwash, Captain Clegg, Tom the Cabin Boy, Captain Hook, the Yellow Creature, Captain Slaughterboard. My guess at the line-up has caused some disagreement. Neil Alderton, among several others, including Peter Slack and Ben Brighoff, notes that the pirate on the far right looks like Alan Moore. Tom Grzeskowiak has a different take on the line-up:
I'm writing to suggest some corrections to the line-up you give for the Pirate's Conference illustration in the latest issue of the League. As a fan of both Sabatini and Thorndyke, I do not think it is Peter Blood on the far left of the picture. The figure's haughty bearing, small stature, and (for a pirate) somber mode of dress would suggest that he is actually the Reverend Dr. Syn in his guise as Captain Clegg. Peter Blood is quite tall, very much a dandy, and (as Moore points out in the essay) possesses a dashing mustache. I think it is much more likely that he is the figure standing behind Long John Silver."...we pass Orofena..."
Your notes got me curious about Captains Pugwash and Pissgums, as I only knew of Pugwash from various urban legends regarding the names of his crew and had never heard of Pissgums before. A quick Google search turned up this image of Pugwash and this one of Pissgums. I wasn't sure from your notes if you had correctly identified Pugwash or not, but Pissgums is clearly the figure on the far right of the picture.
I am not entirely sure that the sailor in front of Pissgums is in Slaughterboard's bunkmate, as author/illustrator Mervyn Peake depicts the yellow creature quite differently it's probably a bosum pal of Pissgums'. Peake's illustrations would also indicate that Slaughterboard is actually the beardless fellow standing next to Peter Blood.
Now I'm wondering who is the mysterious "tenth pirate" seen over Slaughterboard's shoulder, and if he has any relation to the shadowed figure in the Black Lagoon expedition "photo". I'll have to dig up the previous issues to check if similar figures appear in the other travelogues.
"Slightly further north (although apparently maintaining strong diplomatic
connections with Meipe, above) is Maïna..."
Maïna is from André Maurois' Voyage au Pays de Articoles (1927).
"...we sight the changing-coloured sands that bound Cook's Island..."
Cook's Island was created by E. Nesbit and appeared in her The Phoenix and the Carpet (1904).
"...we encounter the vast Mardi Archipelago, containing fascinating
realms such as the island of maimed and one-legged gladiatorial enthusiasts,
Diranda and witch-isle Minda or Valapee, Isle of Yams..."
The Mardi Archipelago, Diranda, Minda, and Valapee are from Herman Melville's Mardi and a Voyage Thither (1849).
"...we pass by Hunchback Island..."
Hunchback Island appears in Abbé Pierre François Guyot Desfontaines' Le Nouveau Gulliver.
"...one of he peculiar areas of the South Pacific that local islanders
believe inspires men to communicate in song, such as the beauteous Bali
Hai near Japan..."
Bali Hai is from Rodgers & Hammerstein's South Pacific (1949), which as Gabriel McCann points out was based on James Michener's Tales of the South Pacific (1947).
"Zara's Kingdom, ruled by British-educated Princess Zara and a sextet
of exemplary Englishmen, including Captain Corcoran who'd previously served
aboard Her Majesty's Ship Pinafore."
Zara's Kingdom, Princess Zara, and Captain Corcoran are from Gilbert & Sullivan's Utopia Limited; or, The Flowers of Progress (1893). The H.M.S. Pinafore is a reference to Gilbert & Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore (1878).
"One puzzling incident recorded by this Captain in his memoires concerns
Marsh's Island, close to Zara's Kingdom and named after Captain Obed Marsh
of Innsmouth, Massachusetts, who dropped anchor there in 1830."
Captain Obed Marsh and Innsmouth, Massachusetts are from H.P. Lovecraft's "The Shadow Over Innsmouth" (1936).
"Islanders from Zara's land believe that Marsh's Island is the haunt
of hideous fish-like humanoids called 'Deep Ones'..."
In "The Shadow Over Innsmouth" Obed Marsh, travelling through the South Seas, discovered an island on which lived a "woman" he took as his bride and who returned with him to Innsmouth. The "woman" was actually a "Deep One," a member of the aquatic fish-humanoids who worship the evil alien god Dagon (not Cthulhu, as I incorrectly stated; thanks to John Toon for the correction).
"When I was a boy an eldritch book informed me I'd inherited the
I'd gills and wide-spaced eyes, you see, and I frolicked at the bottom of the deep blue sea
(He frolicked at the bottom of the deep blue sea).
I went to the ocean depths most willingly, and now I am a tentacled monstrosity
(He went into the ocean depths most willingly, and now he is a tentacled monstrosity)."
The "Innsmouth Look" is from "The Shadow over Innsmouth." The "Innsmouth Look" is a facial deformity that descendants of Obed Marsh and his Deep One bride develop as they grow older, a deformity which presages their change into a Deep One.
The joke behind these lyrics is that they describe what happens to the narrator of "The Shadow Over Innsmouth" in the style of Gilbert & Sullivan. PoohBah42 says, and Loki Carbis and Ted Anderson and Mark Coale, among others, agree with him/her:
The "Innsmouth Look" song is not merely "in the style of" Gilbert & Sullivan; it is, specifically, written to the tune of Sir Joseph Porter's patter-solo from Act One of H.M.S. Pinafore."This is Noble's island, close to Ecuador, where an English biologist (apparentlly employed by British Military Intelligence) performed experiments of a most confidential nature that we nonetheless believe to have involved hybridisation, during the late 19th century. This belief, we should add, is supported only by the testimony of the clearly half-demented hermit Edward Prendick, who Miss Wilhelmina Murray and her colleague Allan Quatermain encountered on their trip to the South Downs during the terrible Martian incursion in the latter half of 1898."
Here is the first verse, for comparison:
When I was a lad I served a term
As office boy to an Attorney's firm.
I cleaned the windows and I swept the floor,
And I polished up the handle of the big front door.
He polished up the handle of the big front door!
I polished up that handle so carefullee
That now I am the Ruler of the Queen's Navee!
He polished up that handle so carefullee
That now he is the Ruler of the Queen's Navee!
(1878, copyright expired)
"...such as Hoste, an island republic..."
Hoste appears in Jules Verne's Les Naufragés du "Jonathan" (1909).
"...or Geometer's island..."
Geometer's Island appears in Abbé Pierre François Guyot Desfontaines' Le Nouveau Gulliver.
"Not far away are Greedy Island...adjacent Doctor's Island...Foolyk...Philosopher's
These are all from Abbé Pierre François Guyot Desfontaines' Le Nouveau Gulliver.
"...we next come to Rampole Island..."
Rampole Island was created by H.G. Wells and appears in Mr. Blettsworthy on Rampole Island (1935).
"...just south of Villings, an attractive island purchased recently..."
Villiangs appears in Adolfo Bioy Casares' La invención de Morel (1941).
"A little west of Villings we find Brisevent, in an archipelago known
as the Marvellous Islands..."
Brisevent and the Marvellous Islands are from Charles Sorel's La Maison des jeux (1657).
"Bordering this group of curiously-populated to the east is Houyhnhnms
Houyhnhnms Land appears in Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726).
"...we pass the fair, enlightened pagan island of Eugea..."
Eugea was created by Népoumucène Lemercier and appeared in L'Atlantiade, our La Théogonie Newtonienne (1812).
"...inhospitable Nimatan with its exquisite lunatic asylums..."
Nimatan, or Nimpatan, appears in John Holmesby's The Voyages, Travels, and Wonderful Discoveries of Captain John Holmesby (1757).
"...the former Roman colony of Oceana..."
Oceana is from James Harrington's The Commonwealth of Oceana (1656).
"...the idealistic republic known as Spensonia..."
Spensonia appears in Thomas Spence's A Description of Spensonia (1795) and The Constitution of Spensonia (1798).
"...the acclaimed 'perfect society' known as Utopia..."
Utopia is from Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1516).
"During the early sixteenth century, Utopia was ruled by the extraordinary
giant Gargantua, and was indeed the birthplace of his son, the similarly-sized
Gargantua and Pantagruel's stint on Utopia appears in François Rabelais' Pantagruel roi des Dipsodes (1532).
Page 27. “Travelling on past Spidermonkey
Spidermonkey Island is from Hugh Lofting's The Voyages of Doctor Dolittle (1923).
"Here we find Vendchurch's Island..."
Vendchurch's Island was created by "Ambrose Evans" and appeared in The Adventures, and Surprizing Deliverances, of James Dubourdieu, And His Wife.
Fonesca, or Fonseca, is from the anonymously-written A Voyage to the New Island, Fonseca, Near Barbados (1708).
"Here too is Oroonoko Island..."
Oroonoko Island may be a reference to Aphra Behn's Oroonoko, or the Royal Slave (1678), but as Lang Thompson points out (and shame on me for getting this one wrong!) in the novel Oroonoko himself comes from Cormantien, on the Gold Coast of Africa.
"...and the quarrel-free Ferdinand's Island..."
Ferdinand's Island is from Johann Michael Fleischer's Der Nordische Robinson (1741).
"One is the island of Speranza, sometimes called the Island of Despair,
where one Rob Crusoe, late of York, spent many years of loneliness and
hardship following his shipwreck there during the last days of September,
Speranza, aka the Island of Despair, aka Crusoe's Island, and Rob Crusoe are from Daniel Defoe's The Life and Strange Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner (1719).
"Ironically, well within swimming distance of Speranza is an island
known as Herland..."
Herland appears in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland (1916).
"...such as Tacarigua..."
Tacarigua is from Ronald Firbank's Prancing Nigger (1924).
"Cannibal Island, nearby..."
Cannibal Island is from Francois Guillaume Ducray-Duminil's Lolotte et Fanfan (1788).
"...while Chita is an island famous for its trees like giant lettuce...
Chita is from Pierre-Mac Orlan's Le Chant de l'équipage (1949).
"The Isle of Birds, much more hospitable..."
The Isle of Birds is from Elézar de Mauvillon's Le Soldat Parvenu (1753).
"We also have the pirate island San Verrado..."
San Verrado appears in Francois Guillaume Ducray-Duminil's Lolotte et Fanfan.
"...and the feared Zaroff's Island, owned by an expatriate Russian
Count whose pass-times include hunting human beings."
Zaroff's Island, and the expat Russian Count Zaroff, are from Richard Connell's "The Most Dangerous Game" (1927).
"Cacklogallinia is ruled by chickens..."
Cacklogallinia appears in Samuel Brunt's A Voyage to Cacklogallinia (1727).
"...the isle belonging to the Milanese Duke and occultist Prospero..."
Prospero is from Shakespeare's The Tempest (1623), which puts Prospero's Island in the Mediterranean, but Robert Browning's "Caliban Upon Setebos" places the island in the Caribbean.
"Within the Patagonian region of south Argentina we find Leonard's
Leonard's Land appears in Jean-Gaspard Dubois-Fontanelle's Aventures Philosophiques (1766).
"Further north, not far from Buenos Aires, we find Babel..."
Babel is from Jorge Luis Borges' "La Biblioteca de Babel" (1941).
"...the first being the Palace of Justice..."
The Palace of Justice is from Marco Denevi's "¿El primer cuento de Kafka?" (1966).
"The other major edifice of note in Babel is the city's spectacular
The library of Babel is from Jorge Luis Borges' "La Biblioteca de Babel."
"...we find Madragal, with its history of skirmishes with Parapagel..."
Madragal, or Maradagal, and Parapagel, appear in Carlo Emilio Gadda's "La cognizione del dolore" (1941).
"Meanwhile, on the eastern border between Argentina and its neighbor
Chile exists Cesares Republic..."
Cesares (or Cessares) Republic appears in James Burgh's An Account of the First Settlement, Laws, Form of Government and Police of the Cessares (1764).
"...within the upper reaches of Chile itself, is Agzceaziguls..."
Agzceaziguls is from Charles Derennes' Les Conquérants d'idoles (1919).
"...stands a solitary Pink Palace..."
The Pink Palace is from Marco Denevi's "La niña rosa" (1966).
"Bolivia, as we continue north, is home to the immense lake (or small
inland sea) known as Lost Time..."
Lost Time appears in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "El Mar del tiempo perdido" (1972).
"...between Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina is Roncador..."
Roncador was created by Herbert Read and appeared in The Green Child (1935).
Several people wrote in to point out what I'd felt too obvious to mention, that the clouds above Crusoe's head form the shape of a buxom woman. The joke is that the cloud is above Herland, mentioned above, while Crusoe, ignorant of Herland, musingly fondles a goat's mouth.
Page 28. “...the fabled Incan kingdom
known as El Dorado...”
The legend of El Dorado first appeared in print in Sir Walter Raleigh's The Discoverie of the lovlie, rich and beautiful Empyre of Guiana (1596).
"...by a young Swiss-German millionaire named Aurie Goldfinger..."
Aurie (or Auric) Goldfinger appears in Ian Fleming's Goldfinger (1959), in which Goldfinger bedevils James Bond. Mitchell Glavas notes that in the "Goldfinger Expedition, 1928" picture, a young-looking Odd Job is visible, standing next to Goldfinger himself.
"In the Andean hills of Ecuador, as an example, there exists a valley
in the shadow of Mount Parascotopetl where all of the populace are blind
This is a reference to H.G. Wells' The Country of the Blind (1911).
"...while high in the Colombian Andes we find Golden Lake..."
Golden Lake appears in Daniel Defoe's A New Voyage Round the World (1724).
"...the delightful almond-scented village of Macondo..."
Macondo appears in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Cien años de soledad (1967).
"Passing on into Venezuela we find (or, in fact, don't find) Ewaipanoma..."
Ewaipanoma appeared in Sir Walter Raleigh's The Discoverie of the lovlie, rich and beautiful Empyre of Guiana.
"...just past ill-starred Nolandia we reach Happiland..."
Nolandia and Happiland appeared in Sir Thomas More's Utopia.
"Aglaura, north of Happiland..."
Aglaura is from Italo Calvino's Le città invisibili (The Invisible Cities, 1972).
"Further north, upon the coast, we come to Watkinsland..."
Watkinsland appears in Doris Lessing's Briefing for a Descent into Hell (1971).
"Not far from Watkinsland to the northwest is Quivera..."
Quivera was created by Vaughan Wilkins and appeared in The City of Frozen Fire (1950).
"Deep within the forests of the Amazon, for instance, is reputed
to exist the ancient jungle kingdom known as Mu..."
I'm a bit puzzled by this reference. One of the classics of crackpot crypto-archaeology is James Churchward's The Lost Continent of Mu (1926) which posited a pre-historic and now sunken continent in the Pacific Ocean called "Mu." I know of no jungle kingdom by that name in literature or film. (Well, except for the city of Mu in the 1935 serial The Call of the Savage, but I believe that Mu was in the East Indies.) Jeff Sweeney adds that Lovecraft dealt with Mu in "Out of the Aeons." Mike W. says,
L. Sprague de Camp writes in his Lost Continents that "Colonel" Churchward based Mu on two sets of tablets, which he "translated": "One of these appears to exist, being a collection of objects found in Mexico by an American engineer named Niven." Churchward claimed that the priests of Mu, the "Nagas or Naacals", emigrated to Atlantis via the Amazon basin. Perhaps some WNU artifact of Mu-ians found in South America was the origin of the Gazetteer's statement.Dave Cotter says, "the only ancient jungle kingdom I can think of with a similar name to Mu is the Kingdom of Moo which was the home of Alley Oop."
"...quite possible the same kingdom described by the great 19th century
traveller Candide and his instructor Dr. Pangloss as 'the Fabulous Land'..."
Candide and Dr. Pangloss are from Voltaire's Candide (1759). I assume that the "Fabulous Land" mentioned here is the same as the El Dorado which the pair encountered.
"In other sources Mu is sometimes known as 'Yu,' or 'Yu Atlanchi'..."
Yu-Atlanchi is from A. E. Merritt's The Face in the Abyss (1931). Yu-Atlanchi is an Incan Lost City.
"...it is near here that the world-famous 'bird girl' Riolama or
Rima was discovered..."
Riolama/Rima appears in W.H. Hudson's Green Mansions (1904). Rima is a notable predecessor to Tarzan; for more information on her see the Rima entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site.
"...next to the same artist's rendering of Edward Hyde in London's
former Serpentine Park, renamed Hyde Park after the events of 1898..."
This is another hint as to the events of the next two issues. Hyde Park is a real place in London, although it is still called that and was in fact named after the manor of Hyde, the owner of the park before King Henry VIII acquired the park in 1536. Mark Elstob corrects my original, mistaken entry and notes that there has never been a Serpentine Park in London, but that the Serpentine, an artificial lake, still exists in Hyde Park.
"The most astonishing of Brazil's mystery sites, which we have saved
for last, is Maple White Land..."
Maple White Land appears in Arthur Conan Doyle's The Lost World (1912).
Page 29. “Some few miles down the Amazon
from the volcanic plateau, for example, is a secluded lake known as the
Black Lagoon by local Indian tribes...”
The Black Lagoon is from The Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954) and Revenge of the Creature (1955). Shawn Garre (and Edward Rogers echoed this) adds that "the dead 'creature' in the Black Lagoon expedition is an obvious female, seemingly explaining why the expedition was wiped out, and why the male creature is so fixated on Kay Lawrence (Julie Adams) of the later expedition." Neil Alderton wonders if the man with the shotgun is the same man in the portrait on Page 20, Panel 1. Lang Thompson says:
The Black Lagoon "photo"/drawing looks sort of like the de Loys photo, a famous cryptozoological document or hoax. There's a decent description at http://members.tripod.com/burns_mike/a/monogrande. Perhaps this is too obvious to mention but the creature here is female while the one in the films is male (and thus the joke in the caption). And here's another real stretch that's probably just coincidence but the man with the shotgun in the back corner looks like the unIDed man in the picture on p20: brimmed hat, mustache, double-barrelled shotgun, striped pants."These may be some hitherto unknown Silurian throwbacks..."
it is worth mentioning that Moore himself (not least because of his writing for "Dr.Who Weekly" many years ago), will certainly be familiar with the Doctor's own later correction of this historical label from "Silurian" to "Eocene". The former was a Period of its own, while the latter was an Epoch occurring during the Tertiary Period, some 350 million years later. In "The Sea Devils", shown in 1972, the Doctor makes mention of the fact that the Silurian Period would be far too early for such a race to have evolved.Andrew McLean says
Apart from their appearance in Doctor Who, I think it should be noted that the term "Silurian" is inaccurate for a race who were supposed to have been around 200 million years ago. This was pointed out by a child in a letter to a newspaper, and in the subsequent story "The Sea Devils" (about aquatic relatives of the original "Silurians") the Doctor pointed out that the term was wrong - unfortunately substituting a new term, "Eocene", which was also wrong. (According to research given at the start of the Who novel The Scales of Injustice by Gary Russell, the correct term would be "Sinemurian", which refers to the early Jurassic period.)Zoltán Déry says that the name of the episode was "Doctor Who and the Silurians." Doug Tribbe disagrees with the preceding, seeing it only as a reference to the Silurian Period, not to the Dr. Who episode.
"...there is the miserable Island of Birds..."
The sad Island of Birds appears in Michel Tremblay's Contes pour buveurs attardés (1966).
"...not to be confused with the Isle of Birds found in the Caribbean..."
The Isle of Birds in the Caribbean appears in Elézar de Mauvillon's Le Soldat Parvenu.
"...we have Waferdanos..."
Waferdanos appears in the anonymously written Voyage Curieux d'un Philadelphe dans des Pays nouvellement Découverts (1755).
"...the submarine country Capillaria..."
Capillaria is from Frigyes Karinthy's Capillaria (1921).
"The ruins of another previously mentioned underwater passage, namely
the Atlantic Tunnel..."
The Atlantic Tunnel appears in Luigi Motta's Il tunnel sottomarino (The Undersea Tunnel, 1927).
"...a number of the islands (once known as 'The Wicked Archipelago')..."
The Wicked Archipelago appears in Lucian of Samosata's True History (2nd century C.E.).
"These include the notoriously rain-swept Buyan Island..."
Buyan Island appears in Karl Ralston's "Buyanka" (1932).
"...cheese-like Caseosa and the startling island Cabbalussa...neighboring
Caseosa, Cabbalussa, and Dream Island appear in Lucian of Samosata's True History.
"Yspaddaden Penkawr castle in Wales..."
Yspaddaden Penkawr is from The Mabinogion, the 14th century C.E. collection of Welsh legends and myths. Yspaddaden Penkawr is as described, a castle which seems to recede the closer one draws to it.
"Idol Island and Winkfield's Island..."
Idol Island and Winkfield's Island are from "Unca Eliza Winkfield"'s The Female American (1767).
"Further south, however, on the island of Militia, we find mention
of a man-mimicking variety of shrub known as a Simlax..."
I don't know what these refer to. Others, however, did (thanks, folks). Ian Driscoll informatively adds:
Did some digging, and "Simlax officinalis L." is the scientific nomenclature for Sarsparilla. According to the reading I've done, sarsparilla was originally used to treat syphilis but it soon became known as a tonic for male sexual potency. Some herbalists say it contains steroid-like compounds, saponin glycosides, that contain male hormones. This has never been proven, but these substances appear to stimulate the body's metabolic processes. Recently, it has been marketed as a "male herb" that can increase muscle mass much the same way as steroids can. This may have something to do with the "man-mimicking" shrub that Moore refers to on pg 29 of Vol 2, #3: "Further south, however, on the island of Militia, we find mention of a man-mimicking variety of shrub known as a Simlax..."Jason Adams says that Militia and the Simlax shrub are from "the writings of Roman historiographer Plinius (where the island is called Melita) and Pliny the Elder's Inventorum Natura." Mitchell Glavas adds that "The Simlax is a man-shaped bush that grows on the island and is actually a maiden who was transformed into this plant by the gods. There are apparently ( or were, in Pliny's time) human inhabitants of the island who refused to use the Simlax in their religious rites due to its origins." Mark Cummins adds
Sarsparilla is also sometime referred to as Smilax, which lead to another, possibly more fruitful discovery. In Pantaletta: A Romance of Sheheland by Mrs. J. Wood (1882), we find the memoirs of General Icarus Byron Gullible who travels by means of an airship dubbed The American Eagle, which is propelled by an invention known as the Killye Motor, which "is about to revolutionize all known methods of artificial locomotion." He becomes lost on his expedition to the Arctic and lands on "what he supposes are the Western Shores of the Atlantic" but in fact turns out to be "Sheheland", where women rule as forceful, masculine SheHes and men are forced to dress and live as a subjugated lower class of women, known as HeShe:The elder heshes, those of the grave, coarse features, conversed with the animation of veteran gossips. The middle-aged listened to the remarks of their domestic lords or soothed an unruly infant, here and there. The unmarried studied the effects of the latest fashions or cast coquettish glances at their pantaloon-wearing neighbors [the SheHes]. Boys under sixteen years of age were quite at ease in dresses, having during their short lives known no other kind of garment. The adults wore hip and breast pads to a man, in obedience to the nefarious dress laws. Their hair was worn in knots or curls all natural deficiencies being supplied by the hair-dressers. Continual shaving, and hair eradicators, kept all beards at bay. Rings adorned the fingers of the new fair sex, and chains, charms, beads and other ornaments, glistened about their throats. Fans and dainty handkerchiefs fluttered in the breeze. Every gentleman--if I may apply so foreign a word--was unhappy unless his dress was made in the height of fashion.Gullible is sentenced to death, and his executioner is a woman known as Smilax, which as we've seen, is a common alternate term for Simlax:The executioner's face was entirely concealed by a tightly-fitting mask. At first her form seemed masculine to me, but a stride or two, an unstudied movement of the hand, brought to my mind another likeness. Her height was that of Pantaletta. Leaning lightly upon the handle of her blood-thirsty ax, she scanned me with a look of burning, almost fiendish, expectancy.As for the reference to "shrubs", I've discovered that "shrub" is a slang term for "a miserable person, usually a man" - unfortunately, I haven't been able to discover the origin, either in time or geography for this term, so I don't know if it's anachronistic.
It is possible that Mina is using slang to describe the residents of SheHeLand, which would roughly fit the area that Moore is discussing on pg 29. The connection to "Simlax" remains slim, however Moore may be conflating the popular herb and the memoirs of Gullible.
I think this is a bit of a stretch, and probably wrong, but it's interesting nonetheless.
The complete text of the novel is here: Pantaletta: A Romance of Sheheland.
There is an entry in Publios Heron Odiosos' Cultures of the World that may be of some use:"...the mobile vegetation on the nearby Island of Moving Trees..."Melita. In the Western Ocean there be a small island, which is uninhabited in recent years, called Melita. There grows the herb simlax, or so says the western Roman historiographer Plinius, which grows in a Mannish shape and slowly strangles the trees it clings to. According to Plinius, a girl called Melita was turned into a great simlax plant, for she loved another womans husband.
"Prospero's occasional companion Captain Robert Owe-much...Ursina...Vulpina..."
Captain Owe-much, Ursina, and Vulpina are from "Frank Careless"' The Floating Island (1673).
"...the Island of Fortune...the Island of Chance...Philosophy Isle..."
The Island of Fortune, the Island of Chance, and Philosophy Isle appear in Abbé Balthazard's L'Isle Des Philosophes Et Plusieurs Autres (1790).
"The Island of the Palace of Joy..."
The Island of the Palace of Joy appears in Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato (1487).
"...a very pretty gentleman that I once met, by name Orlando..."
Orlando is from Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato, Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando Furioso (1516), and Virginia Woolf's Orlando (1928). The joke that he is "very pretty" is a reference to Orlando's sex change, from male to female, in Virginia Woolf's Orlando.
"...but illusions of the sorcerer Malagigi."
The sorcerer Malagigi is from Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato.
"This mention of a person named Orlando is far from unique in the
League's annals, though as we shall see the gender of this person seems
In Virginia Woolf's Orlando the titular character changes sex, literally overnight.
Rossum's Island appears in Karel Capek's R.U.R. (1923).
"...commencing with Quarll Island..."
Quarll Island appears in Peter Longueville's The Hermit (1727).
Page 30. “...nearby Treasure Island,
where the pirate captain Flint...”
Treasure Island and Captain Flint are from Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island.
"...Glubbdubdrib, Balnibari and Laputa..."
Glubbdubdrib, Balnibari and Laputa are from Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726).
"...Captain Sparrow's Island..."
Captain Sparrow's Island appears in S. Fowler Wright's The Island of Captain Sparrow (1928).
Brobdignag is from Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726).
"...Great Mother's Island..."
Great Mother's Island is from Gerhart Hauptmann's Die Insel der grossen Mutter (1924).
"...and Orphan Island."
Orphan Island is from Rose Macauley's Orphan Island (1924).
"Up in the great northwest expanses of the
Klondike region, for example, stands Thieves City..."
Thieves City was created by Maurice Level and appears in La Cité des Voleurs (1930).
"...a tropical oasis known as Dead Man's Valley..."
Dead Man's Valley, aka Tropical Valley, appears in Pierre Berton's The Mysterious North (1956).
"...the Valley of the Beasts..."
The Valley of the Beasts appears in Algernon Blackwood's "The Valley of the Beasts" (1927).
Haunted Island appears in Algernon Blackwood's "A Haunted Island" (1906).
"...nearby Canadian Floating Isles..."
Canadian Floating Isles appear in Charles M. Skinner's Myths and Legends of Our Own Land (1896).
"...the frankly absurd area called Rootabaga Country..."
Rootabaga Country was creaed by Carl Sandburg and appeared in Rootabaga Stories (1922).
"Elsewhere in Washington State we discover Chisholm Prison, thought
to be escape-proof until the ingenious professor Van Dusen did just that
during the first years of the twentieth century..."
This is a reference to "The Problem of Cell 13" (1905), perhaps the most famous of Jacques Futrelle's "Thinking Machine" stories. Professor Van Dusen is the (admittedly very clever) "Thinking Machine." Robert Gurskey disagrees with the location of Chisholm Prison, saying, "Practically all the Thinking Machine stories are set in the Boston, MA area and E. F. Bleiler in the introduction to his 1973 Dover collection Best Thinking Machine Detective Stories implies that Chisholm prison is based on Charlestown Prison."
"...the logging town of Twin Peaks..."
This is a reference to David Lynch's Twin Peaks (1990).
"...we find areas of dense forest sometimes called 'The Deep, Deep
Woods' by locals. Doll-like creatures have been seen here..."
This is a reference to Johnny Gruelle's Raggedy Ann in the Deep Woods (1930). (Not my Raggedy Ann! Nooooo! Moore, you bastard!)
"...a supposedly-haunted dell within the Deep, Deep Woods called
Glastonbury Grove appears in David Lynch's Twin Peaks. As Andrew McLean points out, Glastonbury Grove is the doorway to the Black Lodge, the home of the evil plaguing the woods and Twin Peaks.
"Moving through Oregon we pass by Cricket Creek (one of the places
where there have been various reports of living dinosaurs..."
Cricket Creek is from Evelyn Sibley Lampman's The Shy Stegosaurus of Cricket Creek (1955).
"...upon the nearby coast the city of Mahagonny..."
Mahagonny was created by Bertolt Brecht and appears in Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (1929).
"...near Mendocino, we find France-Ville..."
France-Ville is from Jules Verne's Les 500 Millions de la Begum (1879).
"Some distance further down, now Monterey, at a number 5 Thallo Street
in Pacific Grove, lives the intriguing although somewhat musty-smelling
scientist Tyco M. Bass..."
Tyco M. Bass appears in Eleanor Cameron's The Wonderful Flight to the Mushroom Planet (1954).
"...while San Francisco is home to the Western American Explorer's
Club, whose Professor William Waterman Sherman was involved in the mysterious
'21 Balloons' incident of 1883."
The Western American Explorer's Club, Professor William Waterman Sherman, and the 21 Balloons Incident of 1883 are from William Pène Du Bois' The Twenty-One Balloons (1947).
"Out in rural California, not far from Merced, is the long-established
settlement called iDEATH, famed for its watermelons. Hardened sugar from
there is used to make trout-hatcheries, cabins, sculptures or indeed almost
anything one might require. Continuing south, past a vast spread of rusted,
obsolete machinery from the 19th century known locally as The Forgotten
iDEATH and the Forgotten Works are from Richard Brautigan's In Watermelon Sugar (1964).
"...just past Mexico's border, to the charming villa of Don Diego
de la Vega where the masked adventurer known as "The Fox" was sighted during
the nineteenth and even early twentieth centuries."
Don Diego de la Vega was the Zorro, the Fox, in Johnston McCulley's Zorro stories, beginning with "The Curse of Capistrano" (1919). The first Zorro stories took place in the early part of the 19th century, but as McCulley cranked out successive stories, and as other authors turned out sequels, heirs to the mantle of Zorro appeared across the century and into the start of the 20th century.
"...thought to be the birthplace of the fabled lumberjack Paul Bunyan
and his celebrated blue ox, Babe..."
Paul Bunyan and Babe are American legends; any number of myths were told about them starting in the 1840s.
"The crewman, a fellow named Lebowsky, had been formerly a member
of the Naiad race of Scoti Moria, but it is not known if he continued the
traditional Naiad habits of smoking and nine-pins once established in America,
or indeed if he produced any subsequent offspring of any note."
This is another piece of Moorean back-engineering, referring to an ancestor of The Dude and Mr. Lebowski from The Big Lebowski (1998, by Ethan & Joel Coen).
"...the ruined city of Tcha, a supposedly Atlantean colony on the
Tcha was created by L. Frank Baum and appeared in The Boy Fortune Hunters in Yucatan (1910), one in the "Boy Fortune Hunter" series about a group of youthful treasure hunters who traveled around the world, finding profit and glory wherever they went.
"While giving mention to Louisiana's marvelously atmospheric Yoknapatawpha
Yoknapatawpha County is from William Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha stories and novels, including The Sound and the Fury (1929) and Absalom, Absalom (1936). However, in the Faulkner novels Yoknapatawpha County is in Mississippi, not Louisiana. Carycomic adds what I should have remembered, that if Yoknapatawpha was in Louisiana it would be Yoknapatawpha Parish, not County.
"...the New Mexico ranch home of the early 20th century gunfighter
and balladeer Gene Autry. While the famous singing cowboy's home is not
itself remarkable, beneath it sprawls the subterranean empire of Murania..."
Gene Autry (1907-1998), of course, was a real person, but what this passage refers to is the fictional Gene Autry, who appeared, along with the underground kingdom of Murania, in The Phantom Empire (1935).
"...the massive underground land Atvatabar..."
Atvatabar was created by William R. Bradshaw and appeared in The Goddess of Atvatabar (1892).
"...the similarly subterranean Etidorhpa's Country..."
Etidorhpa's Country appears in John Uri Lloyd's Etidorhpa or the End of the Earth (1895).
"...cave systems in Kentucky..."
Jason Adams notes,
The "cave systems in Kentucky" mentioned on pg. 30 in connection to Atvatabar, no doubt refers to Mammoth Cave, the largest known cave system in the world (200+ miles of surveyed passages). Incidentaly, there are neighboring caves that are suspected to be connected to the Mammoth system, which, if so proven, would add another 100 or so miles."...the Inca Tunnel running from the same Kentucky caves towards Peru..."
Neil Alderton, among others, including Ed Toschach and Jonathan Carter, points out that Orlando's watch has a question mark on it, the leitmotif of the League.
Page 31. "...to the east beyond the wildernesses
Drexara was created by Abbé Antoine Francois Prevost, Le Philosophe anglois (1731).
"...are the Appalachin hills where Silver John (a balladeer and possibly
a colleague of Gene Autry)..."
Silver John was the memorable creation of Manly Wade Wellman and appeared in a number of short stories and collections, beginning with Who Fears the Devil? (1963).
"...the hillbilly settlement called Dogpatch, with its famously attractive
females, and the nearby Valley of the Shmoon, where little edible food
is grown, but where nobody goes hungry."
Dogpatch and the Valley of the Shmoon both appeared in Al Capp's comic strip Li'l Abner (1934-1977). The Shmoon (plural of Shmoo) were the most edible beast in creation.
"Westwards, meanwhile, lies Oklahoma, another location that seems
to inspire men to song and dance, at least to judge by the Nature Theatre
This is a reference Rodgers & Hammerstein's Oklahoma! and to the Nature Theatre of Oklahoma, which appears in Franz Kafka's Amerika (1927).
"Northwards, over Kansas, there would seem to be some massive flaw
in space, as mentioned earlier, permitting access to extensive extra-worldly
This is a reference to the Oz books by L. Frank Baum, the first of which was The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900). Xanadude adds, about the "flaw in space,"
Dorothy Gale and others made frequent trips to Oz later on, so there are several portals -- they are probably movable or appear sporadically -- for example, Dorothy(or others) was transported to Oz during a storm at sea (on her way to Australia), during the San Francisco earthquake, by walking along a strange road, travelling underground, getting lost and just kinda winding up in Oz (Button Bright's favorite method), be blown there by high winds, magically transported from Philadelphia, among other ways.A large number of people have written me suggesting that the "flaw in space" over Kansas is a reference to Superman, who landed in Kansas' Smallville as a baby. I don't think this is what Moore is referring to, however, since he seems to be taking pains to leave comic book superheroes out of the world of LoEG, and because Superman didn't arrive via a "flaw in space," but rather through normal space, in a spaceship.
"Further north still, in Wyoming, we discover Lake La Metrie and
its legendary talking monster..."
This is a reference to Wardon Curtis' "The Monster of Lake La Metrie" (1899). The "talking monster" was an "elasmosaurus" into which Edward Framingham had his brain transplanted. For more information, see the Monster entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site.
"...eastwards in Montana is Red Gap, where displaced English butler
Red Gap and Marmaduke Ruggles are from Harry Leon Wilson's Ruggles of Red Gap (1915). Stu Shiffman says, "Harry Leon Wilson, in Ruggles of Red Gap and other books, makes it clear that Red Gap is located in eastern Washington, not Montana."
"...the famous former Texas Ranger and masked vigilante John Reid,
shortly prior to Reid's retirement to the coast to raise a family."
John Reid is better known as the Lone Ranger. Todd Klein points out that Reid's retirement to the coast is a reference to John Reid's family connection to Britt Reid, aka the Green Hornet.
"Iowa has Rampart Junction..."
Rampart Junction is from Ray Bradbury's "The Town Where No One Got Off" (1959).
"...in the forgotten county of Apodidraskiana is the haunt of fugitives
called Dotandcarryone Town..."
Apodidraskiana and Dotandcarryone Town are from Thomas Love Peacock's Crotchet Castle (1831).
"Great Cypress Swamp is of more interest to us as the site of certain
grim events, at a neighbouring graveyard, which involved a Mr. Randolph
Carter of Massachusetts."
This is a reference to H.P. Lovecraft's "The Statement of Randolph Carter" (1919) and the four other stories in which Carter appears.
"Great Cypress Swamp also runs into Okeefenokee Swamp, upon the Georgia/Florida
border, where yet more talking animals have been reported..."
The talking animals of Okeefenokee Swamp appear in Walt Kelly's comic strip Pogo (1941-1973).
"Higher up the coast, in Carolina, it appears that youthful ingenuity
is prized with both South Carolina's Readestown..."
This is a reference to the dime novel Edisonade Frank Reade and his son, Frank Reade, Jr., and his grandson, Frank Reade III. Frank Reade was created by Harold Cohen and first appeared in Boys of New York #28 (1876). Frank Reade and his kin were brilliant boy inventors who used their steam- and later electric-powered inventions and vehicles to enrich themselves and kill vast members of non-WASPs. For more information on the Edisonades and Frank Reade, see the Frank Reade entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site.
"...and North Carolina's Wrightstown named for rival boy inventors..."
Wrightstown is a reference to dime novel Edisonade Jack Wright, who was created by Luis Senarens and first appeared in Boys' Star Library #216 (1891). Like Frank Reade, Jr., who Wright was friendly rivals with, Jack Wright was an ingenious boy inventor who used his electricity-powered vehicles to enrich himself, adventure around the world, and kill people who didn't look like him. In the original stories Wrightstown was only an hour's train ride north of New York City. Eric Reehl suggests that "perhaps Moore moved Wrightstown to North Carolina as a reference to the Wright Brothers' first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina." For more information on Jack Wright, see the Jack Wright entry on my Fantastic Victoriana site.
"...while neighbouring Bayport has found fame within the last few
years as home to many mysteries requiring intervention by teen-aged youths
for their solution."
Bayport is the home of teen-aged sleuths Frank and Joe Hardy, aka the Hardy Boys, created by Edward Stratemeyer and Leslie McFarlane and debuting in The Tower Treasure (1926).
"In Virginia, various local authors (such as Musgrave, Kennaston
and Townsend, all of Fairview, close to Lichfield)..."
These individuals appear in James Branch Cabell's The Cream of the Jest (1917).
"...have referred to local legends that concern a hunting party of
three men that set out from the Jamestown colony during January, 1610,
of whom no trace was ever found, save for a journal which tells how the
hunters stumbled on 'a terrible Place' and concludes with the disturbing
entry 'Staires! We have found staires!'"
This frightening event appears in Mark Z. Danielewski's House of Leaves (2000).
"A little north, in Maryland, stands the spectacular estate of Arnheim..."
Arnheim was created by Edgar Allan Poe and appears in The Domain of Arnheim (1847).
"...the dismal ruins of the Usher property..."
This is a reference to Edgar Allan Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839).
"...near Philadelphia...are the remains of Mettingen..."
Mettingen appears in Charles Brockden Brown's Wieland or the Transformation (1798).
"...the eerily dilapidated summer-houses in the swamp called Gone-Away
Lake, close to Creston..."
Gone-Away Lake is from Elizabeth Enright's Gone-Away Lake (1957).
"...the reported talking pigs and other animals of upstate Centerboro..."
This is a reference to Walter R. Brooks' "Freddy the Pig" books, the first of which was To and Again (1927).
"...to the river Island of the Fay..."
The Island of the Fay was created by Edgar Allan Poe and appeared in "The Island of the Fay" (1845).
"...the allegedly-haunted town of Sleepy Hollow..."
Sleepy Hollow is from Washington Irving's "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (1820).
Page 32. “...the small Dutch settlement
famed for its well-known case of genuine suspended animation, one Van Winkle...”
This is a reference to Rip Van Winkle, who was created by Washington Irving and appeared in "Rip Van Winkle" (1820).
"...the nearby town of Hadleyburg, formerly
famous for its decency, has only known shame since its much-deserved humiliation
by a passing stranger during 1899."
This is a reference to Mark Twain's The Man Who Corrupted Hadleyburg (1899).
"Close to New York City is Roadtown..."
Roadtown is from Edgar Chambless' Roadtown (1910).
"...while in New York itself a basement of
unknown location is believed to be the resting place of Flatland, an entirely
flat environment in which live two-dimensional beings..."
Flatland was created by Edwin A. Abbott and appeared in Flatland (1884). Jonathan Carter says, "Rudy Rucker wrote a short story called 'Message Found in a Copy of Flatland,' which says that Flatland is located in the basement of a restaurant. However, this restaurant is in London. If that's what Moore is thinking of, I don't know why he changed the location."
"Neighbouring Connecticut is unremarkable save
for the proverbially pretty and agreeable womenfolk to be found in the
small town of Stepford..."
Stepford and the very pretty women, who actually robots, appear in Ira Levin's The Stepford Wives (1972).
"...the matriarchal settlement of Coradine
Coradine is from W.H. Hudson's A Crystal Age (1887).
"...the old colonial city of Arkham..."
Arkham is from the various "Cthulhu Mythos" stories of H.P. Lovecraft.
"...the feared property in nearby Maine owned by a terrible munitions
dealer named (I think) Belasco..."
Belasco and the feared property in Maine are from Richard Matheson's Hell House (1971).
"...the area surrounding the town of Jerusalem's Lot that has developed
an evil reputation..."
Jerusalem's Lot is from Stephen King's Salem's Lot (1975).
"...and even made a pretty-sounding village called Eastwick sound
This is a reference to John Updike's The Witches of Eastwick (1984).
"...a Massachusetts lunatic, Whateley by name..."
This is a reference, not to Wilbur Whateley, as "Mrrutsala" corrects me, but to his grandfather "Old Wizard Whateley, from H.P. Lovecraft's "The Dunwich Horror" (1929).
"...Lucifer himself would one day 'set his cleft hoof' on the town."
This is a reference to the events of John Updike's The Witches of Eastwick.
"...magical tokens to be found at a Victorian house on Walden Street
Kelly Doran says,
Possibly this refers to the Concord house owned by the Hall family in Jane Langton's The Diamond in the Window (1962) and its several sequels. The plot of each book centers around seemingly-ordinary magical objects (a stained-glass window and a sinister jack-in-the-box, a swing, a stereoscope, a tattered American flag, a bike, etc.) that lead the Hall children Eleanor and Eddy, and later their stepcousin Francesca (Frankie), to magical adventures.Todd Klein (!) confirms that this is a reference to Jane Langton.
"...'sartin talking toad-things, like,' that might be found at Whiton
House on the South Shore."
This is a reference to Edward Eager's The Time Garden (1958). The "talking toad-thing" is a reference to the Natterjack, the friend of the novel's protagonists.
"As we passed a lofty and forbidding residence in rural Massachusetts
that our driver called Hill House..."
This is a reference to Shirley Jackson's wonderful The Haunting of Hill House (1959), which has one of the best opening paragraphs in all of horror fiction. Mitchell Glavas notes that Mina & Allan are traveling from Eastern Mass to far Western Mass, a ride of several hours.
"...he told us of an awful-sounding lottery held in a nearby town,
invariably resulting in the winner's murder..."
This is a reference to the events of Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery" (1949).
"...when we passed Beaulieu, a walled town on the Miskatonic River
leading into Arkham..."
The walled town of Beaulieu appears in Ralph Adams Cram's Walled Towns (1919).
"...a peculiar dream-territory accessible from certain (or perhaps
I should say 'sartin') places in or around Arkham..."
This is a reference to the Dreamlands of H.P. Lovecraft, from (among other places) "The Silver Key" (1929).
"...the architecturally peculiar 'Witch House'..."
The Witch House is a reference to H.P. Lovecraft's "Dreams in the Witch-House" (1933).
"...Arkham's Miskatonic University..."
Miskatonic University appears in or is referred to in many of Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos stories.
"...a scholar, a young man said to have some knowledge of this world
of dreams, named Randolph Carter."
Randolph Carter appears in four H.P. Lovecraft stories, "The Dream Quest of Unknown Kadath," "The Silver Key," "The Statement of Randolph Carter," and "Through the Gates of the Silver Key." In three of these stories Randolph Carter visits the Dreamlands.
"Allan seemed perplexed, saying he recognized the name from somewhere..."
Allan recognizes Randolph Carter because of the events of "Allan and the Sundered Veil" from the first League of Extraordinary Gentlemen series.
"...citing a talking cat that had been seen on Mulberry Street in
The talking cat, and a great many other things besides, are seen on Mulberry Street in Dr. Seuss' And to Think I Saw it on Mulberry Street (1937). But Todd Klein (!) disagrees: "the talking cat of Springfield is meant to be The Cat In The Hat, which Alan decided was nasty enough to be Lovecraftian."
"...the dream-world town of Ulthar."
Ulthar appears in H.P. Lovecraft's "The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath" (1948). Carter thinks that the talking cat is from Ulthar because the citizens of Ulthar are cats. Tim Driscoll, Andrew McLean and John Toon, among others, points out that I somehow forgot Lovecraft's "The Cats of Ulthar" (1920).
"...I stood almost naked in a derelict and filthy room..."
This event is shown in "Allan and the Sundered Veil" in League v1 #5.
E-texts, in order of their mention
From the Earth to the Moon & Round the Moon
"A Tale of the Ragged Mountains"
"A Visit to the Moon"
"The Crystal Egg"
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
The Adventures of Pinocchio
The Wind in the Willows
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
The War of the Worlds
King Solomon's Mines
The Picture of Dorian Grey
The Scarlet Pimpernel
A Bid for Fortune
The Mysterious Island
The Coral Island
The Phoenix and the Carpet
"The Shadow Over Innsmouth"
The Island of Dr. Moreau
The Commonwealth of Oceana
The Voyages of Dr. Dolittle
"The Most Dangerous Game"
"Caliban Upon Setebos"
The Discovery of Guiana
"Out of the Aeons"
The Face in the Abyss
The Lost World
"The Problem of Cell 13"
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
"The Statement of Randolph Carter"
The Cream of the Jest
The Domain of Arnheim
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Wieland; or, The Transformation
"The Island of the Fay"
"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
"Rip Van Winkle"
The Man Who Corrupted Hadleyburg
"The Dunwich Horror"
"The Silver Key"
"Dreams in the Witch-House"
"The Cats of Ulthar"
Thanks to: Alicia, now and forever. Win Eckert, for the W.C. Cording reference. Jason Adams, Adventurer, Neil Alderton, Ted Anderson, PJ Ayres, Keith Bieberly, Ben Brighoff, Loki Carbis, Jonathan Carter, Carycomic, Cefo, Mark Coale, Mike Chary, Philip Cohen, Dave Cotter, Kieran Cowan, Ian Crichton, Mark Cummins, Zoltán Déry, Carla DiFonzo, Kelly Doran, Carolyn Dougherty, Ian Driscoll, Tim Driscoll, Mark Elstob, EmarZero, James Enelow, Richard Flanagan, Shawn Garre, Greg Gick, Jeff Giddens, Mitchell Glavas, Marcus Good, Damian Gordon, Tom Grzeskowiak, Robert Gurskey, Rob Harris, Timothy Hatton, Lukas Haule, Steve Higgins, Rick Hodge, Dave Joll, Heather Kamp, Todd Klein (!), Tim Kreider, Martin Linck, Ed Love, Gabriel McCann, Andrew McLean, Brad Marshall, James Martin, Keith Martin, Brendan McGuire, Mrrutsala, mslbdll, Duc de Nevers, Shaun Noel, Mike Norris, Anthony Padilla, Jeff Patterson, Dan Pearce, Neal Peters, tphile, Allyn Polk, PoohBah42, Eric Reehl, Chris Roberson, John Robie, Edward Rogers, Jean Rogers, Timothy Rutt, Beppe Sabatini, Masoud Shadravan, Stu Shiffman, Peter Slack, Phil Smith, SP Smith, Michael Patrick Sullivan, Jeff Sweeney, David Thiel, Lang Thompson, Geoffrey Tolle, John Toon, Ed Toshach, Doug Tribbe, Jamie Ward, Mike W., Chris Wiley, Jackie Williams, Xanadude.